We don't need to know crazy math to be good hackers, as we saw with the crypto section, we can lean on other people's existing programs to get us where we need to go.
However, there are a few "mathy" ideas that are good to know outside of crypto.
Conditional Probability and Monty Hall
This is often in CTF challenges and is really hard to wrap your head around.
Curse of Dimensionality
You don't need to memorize any of these, but it is good to know what they are so you can spot them.
For your assignment, explain Monty Hall in your own words.